Ghana's provision and operation in all modes of transport is dominated by the state with the exception of road transportation. The public sector is actively involved in the operations of all modes of transport and has monopoly over rail and inland water transport. As part of the government's priority to develop and revamp the transportation sector, there are currently exciting opportunities in mass transportation -scheduled bus system, rail upgrades and passenger rail transport on chosen corridors, lake transport system (exports and imports to and from land locked neighbors of Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger), air transport operators for domestic and sub regional services, as well as, upgrading of existing trunk roads systems.
Road transportation is very essential to the Ghanaian economy. Road transport accounts for approximately 94% of freight ton-miles and about 97% of passenger miles in the country.Road transport in Ghana may be categorized into 4 main segments, namely urban, express services, rural-urban and rural. The demand for urban passenger transport is mainly by residents commuting to work, school, and other economic, social and leisure activities. Most urban transportation in Ghana is by road and provided by private transport including taxis, mini-buses and state/private-supported bus services. By road transport buses are the main mode of transport accounting for about 60% of passenger movement. Taxis account for only 14.5% with the remaining accounted for by private cars. The cost of road construction and maintenance is the sole responsibility of the government whereas the task of implementation is borne by private contractors. Major opportunities in the sector are in the form of contracts between the Ministry of Road and Transport and local and international engineering firms via competitive bidding. In the case of emergency contracts, selective tendering is employed.
Ghana's rail network links Kumasi in the heart of the country, Takoradi in the west and Accra-Tema in the east. The rail connection links Ghana's main agro and mining regions to the ports of Tema and Takoradi. It serves the purpose of hauling minerals,cocoa, timber. It also serves as a carrier for passenger traffic. As part of the government's bid to restore and improve the rail network in Ghana, it is their firm priority to develop the rail network extensively to handle up to 70% of both solid and liquid bulk cargo haulage between the ports and the interior and neighboring countries to the northern part of Ghana and beyond. The rail network is undoubtedly an exciting opportunity for foreign investors.
Ghana's airline network is an international and national connection linking Ghana to Africa and the rest of the world. International entry by air to Ghana is via the Kotoka International Airport in Accra. Ghana has positioned herself as the gateway to West Africa and presently remains the leading and preferred airport in the sub-region. Ghana is one of the four countries in sub-Saharan Africa to have obtained a Category One status by the US Federal Aviation Administration audit as part of their International Aviation Safety Audit Programme.